shaka zulu timeline

[29], Various modern historians writing on Shaka and the Zulu point to the uncertain nature of Fynn and Isaac's accounts of Shaka's reign. Nathaniel Isaacs published his Travels and Adventures in Eastern Africa in 1836, creating a picture of Shaka as a degenerate and pathological monster, which survives in modified forms to this day. [13], Dingane and Mhlangana, Shaka's half-brothers, appear to have made at least two attempts to assassinate Shaka before they succeeded, with perhaps support from Mpondo elements and some disaffected iziYendane people. Despite carrying out this revenge, Shaka continued his pursuit of Zwide. William Rubinstein wrote that "Western guilt over colonialism, have also accounted for much of this distortion of what pre-literate societies actually were like, as does the wish to avoid anything which smacks of racism, even when this means distorting the actual and often appalling facts of life in many pre-literate societies". Shaka still recognised Dingiswayo and his larger Mthethwa clan as overlord after he returned to the Zulu but, some years later, Dingiswayo was ambushed by Zwide's amaNdwandwe and killed. 2005). The series consisted of 10 episodes approximately 50 minutes each in length. The Mfecane produced Mzilikazi of the Khumalo, a general of Shaka's. Traditional Zulu praise song, English translation by Ezekiel Mphahlele, Other Zulu sources are sometimes critical of Shaka, and numerous negative images abound in Zulu oral history. and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., eds., (New York: Oxford University Press, PDF The Anatomy of the Zulu Army: From Shaka to Cetshwayo 1818-1879 EBook. Stuart's early 20th century work was continued by D. McK. Using different informants and genealogical charts, A.T. Bryant arrived at similar conclusions. Spoilers ahead. [17] Shaka drilled his troops frequently, in forced marches that sometimes covered more than 50 miles (80 km) a day in a fast trot over hot, rocky terrain. 1879. 1828 - Shaka Zulu is assassinated by his brothers. Shaka was the son of Senzangakona, Forego a bottle of soda and donate its cost to us for the information you just learned, and feel good about helping to make it available to everyone! When the Mthethwa forces were defeated and scattered temporarily, the power vacuum was filled by Shaka. Assassination by rivals to the throne is a constant in monarchies throughout history and around the world. 1000 - For thousands of years hunter-gatherers called the San people inhabit South Africa. Massacres begin as a result of her death. Her father also told Baleka that Shaka spoke as though "his tongue were too big for his mouth." 978-1-107-07532-0 - The Creation of the Zulu Kingdom, 1815 1828: War, Shaka, and the Consolidation of Power Elizabeth A. Eldredge Frontmatter More information. He has been called a military genius for his reforms and innovations, but was condemned for the brutality of his reign. Shaka kaSenzangakhona (c. July 1787 – 22 September 1828), also known as Shaka Zulu (Zulu pronunciation: ), was the King of the Zulu Kingdom from 1816 to 1828. African Military Leader. Shaka chose a particularly gruesome revenge on her, locking her in a house and placing jackals or hyenas inside: they devoured her and, in the morning, Shaka burned the house to the ground. best ring outfit of 2015 fernando guerrero as shaka zulu! [citation needed], Shaka granted permission to Europeans to enter Zulu territory on rare occasions. Certain aspects of traditional Zulu culture still revere the dead monarch, as the typical praise song below attests. ... 1816 - Shaka Zulu forms the Zulu Kingdom. His reforms of local society built on existing structures. At the begining of the 19th century, Shaka had created the most powerful kingdom on the southern part of the continent of Afica. "[13] Others dispute this characterization (see Scholarship section below). Ultimately, Shaka's end came from internal rather than external enemies. [16] He also had two prominent front teeth. Book chapter. Zulu Victory: The Epic of Isandlwana and the Cover-Up by Ron Lock and Peter Quantrill (Greenhill, 2002) The Rise and Fall of the Zulu Nation by John Laband ... British History Timeline. Shaka kaSenzangakhona (ca. 1787-1828), son of Senzangakona, king from 1816 to 1828. 52:40. He reformed the remnants of the Mthethwa and other regional tribes and later defeated Zwide in the Zulu Civil War of 1819–20. He lived his early years in exile but became strong enough to wrest the crown from his half-brother. The founders of the states which Omer-Cooper called "Zulu-type states," including the Ndebele, the Gasa, the Ngoni, and the Swazi had all been closely associated with Zwide. Shaka was born in 1787. Due to pressure from tribal leaders Shaka’s parents separated resulting in the exile of him and his mother from his father’s clan. Shaka Zulu (c.1787–1828) Source: A Dictionary of African Politics Author(s): Nic Cheeseman, Eloïse Bertrand, Sa’eed Husaini. These numbers are, however, controversial. His impis (warrior regiments) were rigorously disciplined: failure in battle meant death.[33]. [16] Different coloured shields distinguished different amabutho within Shaka's army. Zululand, at its start, is a Fetishist Nguni despotic tribe located in the Nguni area, South Africa region of the Africa continent. credit Shaka with initial development of the famous "bull horn" formation. It features Zulu king, Shaka Zulu, against Roman dictator, Julius Caesar. Shaka usurps the Zulu Chiefdom. Massacres begin as a result of her death. In 1810 he created the Aniklwa which became the primary Zulu weapon which helped them win more and conquer more. His father was the chief of the Zulus and his mother, Nandi, was the daughter of the chief of a nearby clan. [13] More modern researchers argue that such explanations fall short, and that the general Zulu culture, which included other tribes and clans, contained a number of practices that Shaka could have drawn on to fulfill his objectives, whether in raiding, conquest or hegemony. Timeline. Make educational timelines or create a timeline for your company website. Middleton and Joseph C. Miller, eds., (New York: Scribner’s, 2008); Shaka Zulu was founder of the Zulu nation, a born leader and a brilliant general. Biography of Shaka Zulu, the greatest Zulu leader and one of the great conquerors of military history . Most popular accounts are based on E.A. All donations are tax deductible. Boys and girls aged six and over joined Shaka's force as apprentice warriors (udibi) and served as carriers of rations, supplies like cooking pots and sleeping mats, and extra weapons until they joined the main ranks. The second major clash was against the British during 1879. Shaka claimed his father’s chieftaincy with military assistance from Dingiswayo. In Qwabe, Shaka may have intervened in an existing succession dispute to help his own choice, Nqetho, into power. An epic tale with thousands of extras, it was … The Zulu monarch Shaka was a contemporary of the French emperor Napoleon, and has even been dubbed the ‘African Napoleon’ by some. [13], The first major clash after Shaka's death took place under his successor Dingane, against expanding European Voortrekkers from the Cape. Is this a good timeline of the major biographical highlights of Shaka Zulu? argue that Shaka "changed the nature of warfare in Southern Africa" from "a ritualised exchange of taunts with minimal loss of life into a true method of subjugation by wholesale slaughter. Confirmation of such accounts can also be seen in modern archaeology of the village of Lepalong, an entire settlement built underground to shelter remnants of the Kwena people from 1827 to 1836 against the tide of disruption that engulfed the region during Shakan times.[41]. The Zulu Empire begins to collapse. The initial problem Dingane faced was maintaining the loyalty of the Zulu fighting regiments, or amabutho. Some scholars contend that this theory must be treated with caution as it generally neglects several other factors such as the impact of European encroachment, slave trading and expansion in that area of Southern Africa around the same time. The increased military efficiency led to more and more clans being incorporated into Shaka's Zulu empire, while other tribes moved away to be out of range of Shaka's impis. 2:18. [clarification needed] To show his gratitude, Shaka permitted European settlers to enter and operate in the Zulu kingdom. Alonford James Robinson, “Shaka,” in Africana, the Encyclopedia of the His father, Senzangakhona, was a minor chief of one of the Zulu-speaking clans and his mother, Nandi, was daughter of Chief Mbhengi of the rival clan. Shaka (Tshaka, Tchaka or Chaka; sometimes referred to as Shaka Zulu; was the most influential leader of the Zulu Kingdom. Do you find this information helpful? 1826, Nandi, Shaka’s mother, dies. Consequently, her son Shaka was harassed, tormented, and neglected. Shaka ruled from 1816 till 1828. In 1879 the Anglo-Zulu war was at its height and there were many battles. This left the royal kraal critically lacking in security. However, apart from their reputation as great military leaders, history has remembered these two men quite differently. Shaka Zulu (1787-1828) Home - Book Shop - Wars - Battles - Biographies - Timeline - Weapons - Blog - Full Index - Subjects - Concepts - Country - Documents - Pictures & Maps . 1803 he joined Dingiswayos new formed group the bush men. There is an anecdote that Shaka joked with one of his friends, Magaye, that he could not kill Magaye because he would be laughed at. Make educational timelines or create a timeline for your company website. When I mentioned that Shaka … [15] Dingane ruled for some twelve years, during which time he fought, disastrously, against the Voortrekkers, and against another half-brother, Mpande, who, with Boer and British support, took over the Zulu leadership in 1840, ruling for some 30 years. The ripple effect caused by these mass migrations would become known (though only in the twentieth century) as the Mfecane (annihilation). Other notable figures to arise from the Mfecane include Soshangane, who expanded from the Zulu area into what is now Mozambique. Epic Rap Battles of History Season 4. live-20211. A standard general reference work in the field is Donald Morris's "The Washing of The Spears", which notes that the sources, as a whole, for this historical era are not the best. Shaka Zulu was founder of the Zulu nation, a born leader and a brilliant general. 1826, Nandi, Shaka’s mother, dies. In that encounter, Zwide's mother Ntombazi, a Sangoma (Zulu seer or shaman), was killed by Shaka. Want to help ERB? As Shaka grew older, he recalled with anger his tormenting by Elangeni members. 1826, Shaka faces Zwides son, Sikhunyane. Book chapter. He was one of the most influential monarchs of the Zulu Kingdom, responsible for re-organizing the Zulu military into a formidable force via a series of wide-reaching and influential reforms. Timeline. South Africa Timeline BCE. Age-grade groupings of various sorts were common in the Bantu culture of the day, and indeed are still important in much of Africa. [16] He was tall and his skin tone was dark brown. Phongola is near the present day border of KwaZulu-Natal, a province in South Africa. For the ease of readers unaccustomed to … Timeline of the Anglo-Zulu War by Ben Johnson. of his attempts to revise Western thinking about Shaka.[45]. A frontal assault by their opponents failed to dislodge them, and Shaka sealed the victory by sending his reserve forces in a sweep around the hill to attack the enemy's rear. Although he preferred social and propagandistic political methods, he also engaged in a number of battles.[4]. The profile and history of Tshaka King of the Zulu (a.k.a Chaka, Shaka), he was one of the greatest leaders of his time. At least 7,000 people who were deemed to be insufficiently grief-stricken were executed, although the killing was not restricted to humans: cows were slaughtered so that their calves would know what losing a mother felt like. Shaka then set out to forge the various Zulu-speaking clans into a powerful empire. For in the space of twelve years, he organized an immense army of skilled and disciplined warriors, conquering and pacifying a territory larger than Europe. With Qwabe, Hlubi and Mkhize support, Shaka was finally able to summon a force capable of resisting the Ndwandwe (of the Nxumalo clan). [37][38][39], According to Julian Cobbing, the development of the view that Shaka was the monster responsible for the devastation is based on the need of apartheid era historians to justify the apartheid regime's racist policies. A number of writers focus on Shaka's military innovations such as the iklwa – the Zulu thrusting spear, and the "buffalo horns" formation. When Senzangakhona (Shaka's father) died in 1816, Shaka's younger half-brother Sigujana assumed power as the legitimate heir to the Zulu chiefdom. Men under age … Chaka by Thomas Mofolo and Daniel P. Kunene. Shaka kaSenzangakhona is considered as one of the greatest rulers in the history of the Zulu Kingdom. 1826. ESNEWS. The regimental system clearly built on existing tribal cultural elements that could be adapted and shaped to fit an expansionist agenda.[21]. Shaka organised various grades into regiments, and quartered them in special military kraals, with regiments having their own distinctive names and insignia. 1879. [16] Several other historians of the Zulu, and the Zulu military system, however, affirm the mobility rate of up to 50 miles per day.[19][20]. [13] Some of these practices are shown below. Compiled and written by Louis-John Havemann . Historian John Laband dismisses these stories as myth, writing: "What are we to make, then, of [European trader Henry Francis] Fynn's statement that once the Zulu army reached hard and stony ground in 1826, Shaka ordered sandals of ox-hide to be made for himself? Ritter when I was a young boy. It was released on July 20th, 2015. His father, Senzangakhona, was a minor chief of one of the Zulu-speaking clans and his mother, Nandi, was daughter of Chief Mbhengi of the rival clan. Follow @DrJohnRickard Tweet. You decide? Loyalty was also maintained through fear, as anyone who was suspected of rivaling Dingane was killed. Implementation was typically blunt. [10] In this way a greater sense of cohesion was created, though it never became complete, as subsequent civil wars attest. Shaka’s mother returned to her Elangeni where she was shunned. This video is unavailable. The exact location is unknown. When Shaka's mother Nandi died for example, the monarch ordered a massive outpouring of grief including mass executions, forbidding the planting of crops or the use of milk, and the killing of all pregnant women and their husbands. The settling of Mzilikazi's people, the AmaNdebele or Matabele, in the south of Zimbabwe with the concomitant driving of the AmaShona into the north caused a tribal conflict that still resonates today. Zululand, at its start, is a Fetishist Nguni despotic tribe located in the Nguni area, South Africa region of the Africa continent. He is credited with creating a fighting force that devastated the entire region. The Zulu Empire begins to collapse. Shaka was victorious in battle, although his forces sustained heavy casualties, which included his head military commander, Umgobhozi Ovela Entabeni. In 1827, at the height of his power, Shaka could order into the field of battle over 50,000 warriors and controlled most of the area that is now the modern state of South Africa. Famous for the bloody battles of Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift, the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879 saw over 15,000 British troops invade the independent nation of Zululand in present-day South Africa. Are the points and dates accurate? 1826. The tribe emerges from uncolonized native land in 1727, with cores, bordering fellow Fetishist Xhosa southwest, uncolonized native land north and west, and the waters of the Cost of Natal (Cape of Storms area, South Atlantic region) east. Napier", "The Zulu Military Organization and the Challenge of 1879", "Shaka Zulu's brutality was exaggerated, says new book", "Warfare, Political Leadership, and State Formation: The Case of the Zulu Kingdom, 1808-1879", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Shaka&oldid=990942729, Wikipedia articles with style issues from September 2017, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2014, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from September 2017, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2015, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The main force, the "chest," closed with the enemy, While the enemy impi was pinned by the "chest," the "horns" would, The "loins," a large reserve, was hidden, seated, behind the "chest" with their backs to the battle, for the sake of them not losing any confidence. Morris nevertheless references a large number of sources, including Stuart, and A. T. Bryant's extensive but uneven "Olden Times in Zululand and Natal", which is based on four decades of exhaustive interviews of tribal sources. These and other sources such as A.T. Bryant gives us a more Zulu-centred picture. I count myself fortunate to have met the author of the book Shaka Zulu, Mr E.A. Indeed, the core Zulu had to retreat before several Ndwandwe incursions; the Ndwandwe was clearly the most aggressive grouping in the sub-region. Soga implied as much when he used genealogical evidence to argue that the Zulu were an upstart group inferior in dignity and distinction to established chiefdoms in their region, for example, the Hlubi, Ndwandwe, and Dlamini lines. On the death of Shaka's father (c. 1816), Dingiswayo lent his young protégé the military support necessary to oust and assassinate his senior brother Sigujana, and make himself chieftain of the Zulu, although he remained a vassal of Dingiswayo. Instead of hypothesizing that they all chose to imitate Shaka, it is easier to imagine that he modeled his state on theirs. 0:07. A number of historians[who?] Malcolm in 1950. This remarkable king, was a contemporary of Napolean, and his achievements rivalled the Emperor's. This was meant to release sexual tension between young people, an… Biography of Shaka Zulu, the greatest Zulu leader and one of the great conquerors of military history . With his experience learned from the Mthethwa, he transformed his clan’s military from a largely ceremonial force into a powerful army capable of both defense and aggression. The Creation of the Zulu Kingdom, 1815–1828: War, Shaka, and the Consolidation of Power This scholarly account traces the emergence of the Zulu Kingdom in South Africa in the early nineteenth century under the rule of the ambitious and iconic King Shaka. Carolyn Hampton, “Shaka Zulu,” in New Encyclopedia of Africa, John Shaka's reign was never secure, and maintaining the Zulu kingdom's boundaries required further military campaigns. He is the long-strided pursuer, son of Ndaba, It is probable that, over time, the Zulu were able to hone and improve their encirclement tactics. Thunderer-while-sitting, son of Menzi Shaka Zulu vs Julius Caesaris the fifty-sixth installment of Epic Rap Battles of History and the eleventh episode of Season 4. HISTORY OF SHAKA ZULU . You know nothing, hint guessers. The Zulu Clan In the 1820's, during a period of social unrest and warfare, the Zulu clan, a Bantu people, rose to political prominence under the great King Shaka in present-day South Africa. [28], Their accounts may be balanced by the rich resource of oral histories collected around 1900 by the same James Stuart, now published in six volumes as The James Stuart Archive. When Dingiswayo was murdered by Zwide, Shaka sought to avenge his death. In 1879 the Anglo-Zulu war was at … Shaka Zulu & Julius Caesar battle it out in this episode of Epic Rap Battles Of History. Shaka determined to gain hegemony over the local clans and the ritual skirmishing that had been the traditional manner of settling disputes was to change. The latest Tweets from Shakazulu (@shaka_zulu_1). Although he later became a tyrant, Shaka… Shaka (* um 1787 in der Nähe des heutigen Ortes Melmoth im späteren Natal; 22. One visitor, Nathaniel Isaacs, wrote to Henry Fynn, a white adventurer, trader and quasi-local chieftain: Fynn, according to Wylie, complied with the request, and Wylie notes that he had an additional motive to distort Shaka's image— he applied for a huge grant of land— an area allegedly depopulated by Shaka's savagery. Dress code: Ladies and gents are expected to look their best (No sportswear or hoodies) I.D: Photo I.D Required for all Tables Packages Available: And their leader was Shaka - King of the Zulu. Follow @DrJohnRickard Tweet. 1824 European artist's impression of Shaka with a long throwing, A muster and dance of Zulu regiments at Shaka's kraal, as recorded by European visitors to his kingdom, c. 1827, Expansion of power and conflict with Zwide, Shakan methods versus European technology, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFOmer-Cooper1966 (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Newitt, Malyn D.D. The founder of the *Zulu Kingdom. This remarkable king, was a contemporary of Napolean, and his achievements rivalled the Emperor's. He is Shaka the unshakeable, When Shaka's father died, Shaka assumed control of the Zulu clan, its 1,500 people and 150 sq.kms of territory. Shaka Zulu has become one of the most sought after venues in London, having hosted parties for both high end corporate guests, and the rich and famous. In a two-day running battle, the Zulu inflicted a resounding defeat on their opponents. The Zulu become a powerful nation. He was ultimately assassinated by his half brothers Dingane and Mhlangana. Shaka, Zulu chief (1816–28), founder of Southern Africa’s Zulu Empire. In 1820 Shaka takes control of the entire Zulu Kingdom and begins his conquest. Michal Lesniewski has criticised Wylie for some[which?] September 1828 in KwaDukuza, beides im heutigen Südafrika; auch Shaka Zulu, Shaka ka Senzangakhona, d. h. Shaka, Sohn des Senzangakhona) war ein König der Zulu. 1828, September 22, Shaka is assassinated by Mbopa, and two of Shaka’s half-brothers, Dingane and Mhlangana. "[26], Scholarship in recent years has revised views of the sources on Shaka's reign. Zulu kingdom timeline. He argues that attempts to distort his life and image have been systematic— beginning with the first European visitors to his kingdom. ... 1816 - Shaka Zulu forms the Zulu Kingdom. Timelines; Archives; Publications; go. Soga and Bryant related each of them to a larger grouping they called Mho. [12] (He died in mysterious circumstances soon afterwards.) After sifting through these sources and noting their strengths and weaknesses, Morris generally credits Shaka with a large number of military and social innovations, and this is the general consensus in the field. Shaka developed the iklwa spear and ishla… Shaka ruled from 1816 till 1828. [7], In the initial years, Shaka had neither the influence nor reputation to compel any but the smallest of groups to join him, and upon Dingiswayo's death, Shaka moved southwards across the Thukela River, establishing his capital Bulawayo in Qwabe territory; he never did move back into the traditional Zulu heartland. It is sometimes held that such support was used more for very light forces designed to extract tribute in cattle and slaves from neighbouring groups. As for firearms, Shaka acknowledged their utility as missile weapons after seeing muzzle-loaders demonstrated, but he argued that in the time a gunman took to reload, he would be swamped by charging spear-wielding warriors.

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