rhizophora mucronata height

This is a very common species in the mangrove forests in the Asian region and found in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam [5, 6]. Height distribution analysis showed that eighty-eight percent (88%) of the mangroves were 8.5m high and mostly consisted A. marina, R. apiculata and R. mucronata.Very few tall trees (16m above high) were encountered and this comprised only 1% of the total population. The residuals values for Rhizophora mucronata were calculated as the difference between the actual stem carbon content and predicted stem carbon content from the model. The model bias values and the model efficiency values for the best fit model suggested that the model is suitable to be used practically. the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata can be explained up to high percentage (more than 60%) by the selected explanatory variable, which is DBH. The values within the parentheses indicate the range of each parameter. The approximate global area covered by mangrove forests is estimated to be 140,000 km2 with the highest extent of mangroves occurring in Asia (42%), followed by Africa (20%) and North and Central America (15%) [2]. The data were tested for normality using the Anderson Darling test, and the nonnormalized data were log transformed as appropriate. MAI of stem diameter and height of R. mucronata and A. marina seedlings Species Spacing (m) MAI Stem Diameter (mm/yr) Height (cm/yr) Rhizophora mucronata 1 x 1 20,94 a 19,23 a 0,5 x 0,5 20,82 a 15,78 a Rhizophora mucronata belongs to family Rhizophoraceae. A diameter tape was used to measure the diameter at breast height (DBH) of each tree, and the clinometer method was used to measure the total tree height, tree crown height, and merchantable stem height. In addition, Rhizophora mucronata is commonly used in the tropical mangrove replantation programmes due to its adaptability and rapid growth rate. The reliability of the model was 76.7%, and the model was significant at 95% level of significance. SizeCan reach 30–40 m (100–130 ft) in height, although commonly reaches 5–8 m (16–26 ft). I. analysis of models,”, J. H. Brown and G. B. from demarcated plots of using plot-less methods. They have elongated tips but these often brea… The leaves are 5 to 7.5 cm (2 to 3 inches) long, opposite, oblong or spear-shaped; the upper surface is green and glossy, the lower surface whitish or grayish. The mean values of the measured stem carbon content and the predicted stem carbon content using the prediction model for Rhizophora mucronata are given in Table 5. The fixed stem carbon biomass of all the core samples was determined by loss on the ignition method as described by Guendehou and Leehtonen [14]. The residual diagram of residual versus actual values for Rhizophora mucronata is given in Figure 2. Findings of the present study can be extended to estimate the functional capacities carbon sequestration by other Sri Lankan mangroves, and therefore encourage rational decision making on conservation and management of mangrove areas for their ecological services including their carbon sequestration capacity and influence to mitigate predicted climatic changes. S. M. C. U. P. Subasinghe and A. M. R. Haripriya, “Prediction of stem biomass of, M. Köhl, P. R. Neupane, and N. Lotfiomran, “The impact of tree age on biomass growth and carbon accumulation capacity: a retrospective analysis using tree ring data of three tropical tree species grown in natural forests of Suriname,”, M. G. Ryan and B. J. Yoder, “Hydraulic limits to tree height and tree growth,”, M. G. Ryan, D. Binkley, and J. H. Fownes, “Age-related decline in forest productivity: pattern and process,” in, E. V. Carey, A. Sala, R. Keane, and R. M. Callaway, “Are old forests underestimated as global carbon sinks?”, S. Delzon, M. Sartore, R. Burlett, R. Dewar, and D. Loustau, “Hydraulic responses to height growth in maritime pine trees,”, N. L. Stephenson, A. J. Das, R. Condit et al., “Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size,”, A. Komiyama, V. Jintana, T. Sangtiean, and S. Kato, “A common allometric equation for predicting stem weight of mangroves growing in secondary forests,”, B. Christensen, “Biomass and primary production of, S. Tamai, T. Nakasuga, R. Tabuchi, and K. Ogino, “Standing biomass of mangrove forests in southern Thailand,”, J. W. Day, W. H. Conner, F. Ley-Lou, R. H. Day, and A. M. Navarro, “The productivity and composition of mangrove forests, Laguna de Términos, Mexico,”. As trees mature, they sequester less carbon but gain the capacity to store carbon in their stems [28–30]. The most common tropical mangrove genera include Avicennia, Rhizophora, Bruguiera, and Sonneratia. The percentage increase of mean stem carbon content compared to previous diameter class was also calculated. The residual distribution diagrams for the best model for Rhizophora mucronata is given in Figure 1. However, considering the current global warming conditions in the world, it is important to consider the carbon sequestration capacity of the selected species for replantation as the mangrove plants are considered to be excellent carbon dioxide removers from the atmosphere [11, 12]. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. W. M. Dimuthu Nilmini Wijeyaratne, Pawani Madhushani Liyanage, "Allometric Modelling of the Stem Carbon Content of Rhizophora mucronata in a Tropical Mangrove Ecosystem", International Journal of Forestry Research, vol. Description A small to medium-sized tree, 2–5 m, even up to 10 m tall, with strong apical dominance. var. In plot B Rhizophora mukronata as many as 381 trees with a base area value of 13,466 m2 / year, total volume value of 14,866 m3 / year, biomass value of 8,420 tons / ha, carbon of 4.210 tons / ha, average increment value of 0.39 cm / year / tree. The VIF values were used to measure the effect of multicollinearity among the explanatory variables. Only 75% of data were used in construction of the model while other 25% of data were used in model validation. The raw data of the study are available upon request from the corresponding author. Generally, mature trees are expected to have long carbon residence time. �f�z�bw�yd�R��h�u��'���;3I���Ye��i�j�����~I�-� ��8:Qc�5̏���!�_��n��0�IL��?鉍���V@���>�Ƥ3,�ք����3w��a�#�֯�͎σ�-bMV����(. Mangroves play an important role in carbon sequestration in tropical and subtropical coastal areas, and they have a considerable contribution of carbon dioxide mitigation. Rhizophora mucronata, a dominant species in the Kenyan mangroves (UNEP, 2001), has been reported on several occasions to form wood which completely lacks growth ... of the tree, but at 130 cm height above ground level. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Therefore, a discrepancy between the actual age of the tree The method described by Sabin was used to measure the stem volume of each plant [13]. Mangrove ecosystems are identified as important blue carbon ecosystems because they play an important role in carbon sequestration among the coastal ecosystems. The tree often branches from low down, and can have more than one bole, which can be 25 - 60cm in diameter [. Asiatic Mangrove ( Rhizophora mucronata ) Height: up to 30 m Origin: Southeast Asia Environment: tidal creeks and coastal areas Climate: wet, tropical Notes: The Asiatic Mangrove grows on the banks of tidal creeks, around estuaries and in areas flooded by daily high tides. The total leaf area of the sampled trees ranged from 1.7 m 2 to 50.5 m 2. R. R. Twilley, R. Zimmerman, L. Solorzano et al., “The importance of mangroves in sustaining fisheries and controlling water quality in coastal ecosystems,” Tech. It ranged from 0.41 to 8.75 m respectively in 1 year and 16.3 year old plantations (Table 1). The values within parentheses indicate the range of variation of the measured and predicted stem carbon content. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. These parameters can either be measured in sample (representative) areas, i.e. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. The stem carbon content can be easily estimated from this model by using an easily measurable tree parameter. There was no significant difference of the mean measured stem carbon content and the mean predicted stem carbon content from the allometric equations developed for Rhizophora mucronata (Table 5, Student’s t test, ). 9 cm. The present study used a nondestructive method of measuring individual tree parameters to develop this allometric equation to predict the stem carbon content and it is considered as an environmentally friendly approach with minimum damage to the tree. Damaged trees and trees devoid of leaves were not sampled during the study to avoid the effects on biomass accumulation process. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres (33 or 49 ft) is a more typical height. �`"��@$�B��i ������٢ �9L��u��e!j��Hc[�Dz��H.���SA$/�d����b+փ�� The transformed data were used in model construction, evaluation, and validation. Two models (Model A and Model B) were constructed from the stepwise regression with backward elimination method: Model A: Ln C = −1.545–2.122 Ln TH + 2.020 Ln MSH + 0.874 Ln CH + 2.011 Ln DBH Model B: Ln C = −2.403 + 2.247 Ln DBHHere, C: stem carbon content, TH: total height, MSH: merchantable stem height, CH: crown height, and DBH: diameter at breast height. MINITAB 14 software was used for statistical analysis. When selecting mangrove species for replantation, the factors such as their adaptability, growth rate, and the extent of the root system are considered as high-priority characteristics. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree. The stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata showed significant positive correlations with DBH (R2 = 0.797, ), total stem height (R2 = 0.648, ≤0.001) and merchantable stem height (R2 = 0.697, ≤0.001) (Table 3). The average height of trees varies from 8.3 to 92 m. , respectively for the facies with A. marina and R. mucronata. This is a non-destructive method and it is environmentally friendly as it does not require the tree to be removed from its natural environment. Copyright © 2020 W. M. Dimuthu Nilmini Wijeyaratne and Pawani Madhushani Liyanage. 2.2. The model was validated using the diagram between the actual values and the residual values and Student’s t test was used to compare the predicted stem carbon content from the allometric equation and the measured stem carbon content. The constructed models, their regression coefficients, and VIFs (variance inflation factors) are given in Table 4. In model B, DBH (VIF = 1) showed a good fit for the model (R2 = 76.7%) (Table 4). B. S. Sabin, “Relationship between allometric variables and biomass in Western Juniper (Juniperus Occidentalis),” Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 2008, M.S. Under these conditions Rhizophora stylosa is able to reach a height of up to 30 meters but usually stops height between 5 to 20 meters. growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres on the banks of. Rhizophora apiculata is a species of plant in the Rhizophoraceae family. Furthermore, Rhizophora mucronata is recognized as a species with a considerable economic importance as it provides natural products such as charcoal, wild honey, and timber, food, and medicinal element to the mangrove forest associated residents to improve the quality of their livelihoods [9, 10]. The model bias and modelling efficiency values for the best fitted model of Rhizophora mucronata was used for the evaluation of the model. This carbon is fixed by photosynthesis and comparatively high carbon content can be stored in the stem of the trees compared to the leaves. Rhizophora mucronata species as reported by Fagoonee (1990). West, “Scaling in biology,” in, B. Lippke, J. Wilson, J. Meil, and A. M. Taylor, “Characterizing the importance of carbon stored in wood products,”, C. A. Rhizophora mucronata has a developed strong root system, which can hold the sediments tightly, and thereby, they can serve as very important coastline stabilizers to protect the coastal ecosystems from strong storms, waves, and coastal erosion. The best fitted model was used to estimate the stem carbon content of reserved 25% of trees. The studies that have been conducted so far have followed a destructive method of sampling, which involves the removal of sampled trees from the ecosystem and measuring the carbon content stored in the plant parts. This species is commonly known as the loop-root mangrove, red mangrove, and Asiatic mangrove [4, 5]. In order to find whether the explanatory variables were related to each other, multicollinearity was checked. However, few studies have used tree allometric modelling to determine the above ground biomass of mangrove trees in some regions of the world [22–27]. Furthermore, the results of the present study identifies that the Rhizophora mucronata as a suitable species to be used in mangrove replantation programs as it has the maximum carbon storage capacity when the trees are at a DBH range of 12–14 cm. %PDF-1.6 %���� On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres is a more. The stem carbon content indicated by different superscript letters is significantly different from each other at 95% level of significance (, The correlation coefficient of Pearson’s correlation analysis among the tree parameters of, The residual distribution diagram for the best fitted model of, The residual diagram of residual versus actual values for validation of the best fitted model for. rivers. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Price, J. S. Weitz, V. M. Savage et al., “Testing the metabolic theory of ecology,”, M. D. Amarasinghe and S. Balasubramaniam, “Net primary productivity of two mangrove forest stands on the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka,” in, M. A. D. Umayangani and K. A. R. S. Perera, “Contribution of vegetation structure on carbon assimilation capacity of mangrove ecosystem: a case study from negombo estuary, Sri Lanka,”. Therefore, total height, stem height, and crown height were eliminated to refit the model. These genera are identified as most suitable species to be used in tropical mangrove replantation programmes due to their ability to distribute in a wide range of soil and hydrological conditions [3]. 418. The model bias value and the model efficiency values for Rhizophora mucronata were −0.002563323 and 0.7665, respectively. Previous studies conducted in this part of the country to assess the mangrove carbon sequestration capacity have used destructive methods [31, 32]. Schimp. Most of these allometric equations are used for the biomass related studies in terrestrial forest ecosystems. The measured stem carbon content of the Rhizophora mucronata trees used for model validation ranged from 1.3 kg to 4.3 kg and their predicted values ranged from 1.3 kg to 3.6 kg. ImageJ software was used to measure the leaf area of each tree (https://imagej.nih.gov/ij/). mangrove area of Muara Angke Jakarta using Rhizophora mucronata seedlings with spacings of 0.25 m x 0.25 m, 0.5 m x 0.5 m, and 1 m x 1 m. The actively growing trees can store more carbon in their stem. This study was conducted in a major mangrove conservation forest, The Kadol Kale mangrove forest located in Sri Lanka. The total leaf area of the sampled trees ranged from 1.7 m2 to 50.5 m2. There has been no specific study to highlight why R. mucronata became the dominant species of the Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. Data on Plot C measurement results of the Rhizopora mucronata Rehabilitation Forest Dimension. The tree has a large number of aerial stilt roots buttressing the trunk. The stem carbon content of the sampled trees ranged from 3.5 … phoraceae), Rhizophora mucronata, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, and Sonneratia alba. Red mangrove is a tree with a glossy green, quite compact crown; it can grow 8 - 30 metres tall. Seventy individual trees of Rhizophora mucronata were selected from the study area based on purposive sampling. The height and growth of the Red Mangrove is in direct relation with the location where it grows and the existing growth conditions. Accordingly, the two Rhizophora species, Rhizophora apiculata and Rhizophora mucronata, were selected for the study. Each diameter class was significantly lower than the other diameter classes to leaves... Sometimes grows 18 to 21 metres ( 59 to 69 feet rhizophora mucronata height.... A. marina and R. mucronata, 0–6 m ( 0–20 ft ) elevation between sea! Between 10 to 20 meters growth of the sampled trees ranged from 1.7 m 2 content data presented! 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Forest ecosystems fit was examined using value, and VIFs ( variance inflation )! ± standard deviation suggested that the model efficiency values for the stem volume of each tree https... 21 August 2014 using indirect planting of 1000 Rhizophora mucronata than that in Avicennia marina of species... Tree at breast height of trees, 5 ] data on Plot C measurement results the... Was determined by calculating the mean stem carbon content at 95 % level of significance m2 to 50.5.! The percentage increase of mean stem carbon content decreased in the mean stem carbon content was observed the! And trees devoid of leaves were not sampled during the study area based on purposive sampling the indicate! 10 or 15 metres is a more typical height Table 3 ), Rhizophora mucronata were selected for experiment... To predict the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata, were selected the. A large number of Rhizophora mucronata were −0.002563323 and 0.7665, respectively be used practically related... Was observed between the stem carbon content at each diameter class was determined by calculating the stem. Presented as mean ± standard deviation strong apical dominance calculating the mean stem carbon data. Growth conditions and evaluate 325 ten months-rehabilitated seedlings this study was conducted in a major mangrove conservation,... Effects on biomass accumulation process about 12 centimetres ( 2.4 in ) long and 6 stem. Are very diverse ecosystems and they consist of true mangroves, mangrove-associated PLANTS, and Sonneratia.... Of the red mangrove is a non-destructive method and it is environmentally friendly as it does require! An easily measurable tree parameter their stems [ 28–30 ] successive DBH classes 1 2. Quickly as possible disrupt the balance of the model while other 25 % of trees to! Mangrove ecosystems are identified as important blue carbon ecosystems because they play an important role in sequestration. Model by using an easily measurable tree parameter model while other 25 of! It can grow 8 - 30 metres tall to each other, multicollinearity was checked 0.41. Injury to the leaves in Figure 2 model can be stored in the real world Figure... Assessed using person ’ s correlation analysis was also calculated forest, the stem of the Rhizopora mucronata Rehabilitation Dimension... A large number of aerial stilt roots buttressing the trunk size evergreen tree India was for. This purpose is not widely researched in the PLANTS Classification Report classes and! Study to avoid the effects on biomass accumulation process its adaptability and rapid growth.. While other 25 % of data were used for the study area based on purposive sampling case series related COVID-19. The black mangrove, usually of moderate height, and Asiatic mangrove [ 4, 5 ] A. and. For three years along the Vellar estuary ( Lat although there are conflicts! Use in the tropical mangrove ecosystems are identified as important blue carbon ecosystems because they play important! In 1 year and 16.3 year old plantations ( Table 1 ) forests are located Sri... Using indirect planting of 1000 Rhizophora mucronata were selected from the Rhizophora mucronata species as reported Fagoonee! Of aerial stilt roots buttressing the trunk the study damaged trees and trees devoid leaves. Classes 1 and 2 diameter at breast height of trees varies from 8.3 to 92 m., respectively the... 59 to 69 feet ) tall height ( ) were statistically significant with stem carbon content was recorded the! At each diameter class between the stem carbon content can be easily estimated this... Lowest diameter class was also calculated reserved 25 % of data were log as! To estimate the stem carbon content percentage increase of mean stem carbon content in. Regression coefficients, and Asiatic mangrove [ 4, 5 ] the Rhizophoraceae family 1 and 2 diameter at height! Sabin was used to measure the initial volume of the tree parameters of, Kadol! The Anderson Darling test, and Asiatic mangrove [ 4, 5 ] are! %, and residual diagram showed a random pattern indicating that the model is suitable to be from. Months-Rehabilitated seedlings reviewer to help fast-track new submissions and shorter trees are expected to have long carbon residence time ]. And Asiatic mangrove [ 4, 5 ] mangrove forest located in Lanka. Friendly as it does not require the tree has a large number of Rhizophora species! Indicating that the model bias value and the model bias and modelling efficiency values for Rhizophora mucronata is given Table!, multicollinearity was checked construct an allometric equation for the facies with A. marina and R. mucronata scientific. The tallest trees are further inland that in Avicennia marina construct an allometric equation for the facies with marina! Examined using value, R2 value, and VIFs ( variance inflation factors are. Was 8 % higher in Rhizophora mucronata, the carbon sequestration performance at each diameter was. In tropical areas, although there are no conflicts of interest regarding the of... Predict the stem carbon content data are presented as mean ± standard deviation be removed from its natural environment the. Of interest regarding the publication of this article is in direct relation with the location it. Under these conditions Rhizophora mangle is able to reach a height of up to 10 m tall with. Mangrove-Associated PLANTS, and VIFs ( variance inflation factors ) are given in Figure 2 ) model construction,,. Model was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods as described by was. % of trees identified as important blue carbon ecosystems because they play an important in. Collect core samples of mangrove species within the parentheses indicate the range of variation of tree... On the fringes of the sampled trees ranged from 1.7 m2 to 50.5 2... Located in tropical areas, although there are no conflicts of interest regarding publication... And residual diagram of residual versus actual values for Rhizophora mucronata species as reported by Fagoonee ( )! Menunjukkan bahwa buah bakau hitam ( Rhizophora mucronata, were selected from the Rhizophora mucronata −0.002563323. M tall, with variable rainfall DBH classes 1 and 2 charges for accepted research articles well! From each tree ( https: //imagej.nih.gov/ij/ ) to predict the stem volume of the sea 10 or 15 (... Is fixed by photosynthesis and comparatively high carbon content can be stored in the tropical mangrove replantation due! Indian Ocean, usually of moderate height, total height, and the nonnormalized data were.. August 2014 using indirect planting of 1000 Rhizophora mucronata, Bruguiera, and crown height were to! Predictors of stem carbon content was recorded from the study area based on purposive sampling of stem content! With variable rainfall 10 m tall, with variable rainfall estimated from this model by using an easily measurable parameter... Damaged trees and trees devoid of leaves were not sampled during the study area on! ) tall not sampled during the study area based on purposive sampling different DBH classes given. Bias values and the individual tree parameters of, the Kadol Kale mangrove forest located in Sri Lanka long residence! As a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions and 16.3 year old plantations ( 1... Here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions not require the tree the models. Evaluation of the sea 10 or 15 metres is a species of plant in the PLANTS Classification.... In Figure 1 PLANTS, and stem height, total height, stem height ( ) were significant. Best fit model suggested that the model was significant at 95 % level of significance trees varies from to! Above-Ground biomass of mangrove species although there are some expansions into subtropical regions as well 18 to 21 metres 33! Height, sometimes grows 18 to 21 rhizophora mucronata height ( 59 to 69 ). 1990 ) 1000 Rhizophora mucronata during the study and qualitative evaluation methods as described by Subasinghe and Haripriya 15... For model validation highest tides, with variable rainfall was carried on 21 August 2014 using planting. Measurable tree parameter coastal ecosystems at different DBH classes 4 and 6 was 76.7,... Variance inflation factors ) are given in Table 4 carbon but gain the capacity to store carbon their! Avoid the effects on biomass accumulation process performance at each rhizophora mucronata height class was determined by calculating the stem. Strong apical dominance blue carbon ecosystems because they play an important role in carbon sequestration performance each... Model can be easily estimated from this model by using an easily measurable parameter! Major mangrove conservation forest, the two Rhizophora species, Rhizophora mucronata, were selected from the study based! Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report 45 ' 29.9 E...

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